Rosemary 0,125 g
|HUF 325 * (nettó: HUF 256)|
Characterisation of rosemary:
Like most other herbs, rosemary is native to European and African countries around the Mediterranean. It is native to southern Europe, western Asia and North Africa, where it still grows wild. In these places, numerous types and varieties have evolved, which can vary from country to country. It does not occur in the wild in our countrybut it does overwinter in the wild in warmer and more protected areas of the country. It has been a herb and medicinal plant since ancient times, and the ancient Greeks believed it stimulated brain function, so students always had a sprig of rosemary. Later, it became a symbol of fidelity for lovers and, as a symbol of loyalty and purity, it is still a common decoration on wedding tables.
Its name (Rosmarinus) refers to its ancestral home, the humid coast. marinum = sea, ros = dew; thus the name means 'dew of the sea'. It was brought to the Carpathian Basin by the Romans, who spread and popularised it throughout Europe, even in the British Isles.
A member of the lip family, the rootstock of this semi-shrub is woody, strongly branched, white when young, later brown. The densely branched stems grow to a height of 0.5-2 m. Its branches are rather weak, greyish-white when young, later darkening and becoming scaly. The needle-like leaves are 1-4 cm long and 2-3 mm wide, fibrous, sessile, blunt-tipped. The edges are curled, leathery, greyish felted on the filaments, glabrous above. The characteristic aromatic, camphor-like scent is due to the essential oil in the glandular hairs.
The flowers are dioecious, typically five-petalled in the family, and form a terminal leafy raceme arising from the leaf horns. Their two-lipped calyxes are convolute, and their pairs are characteristically labiate: the lower lip has three lobes, the upper two lobes. The pads are bluish violet,rarely white. According to folklore, when Jesus' mother fled to Egypt, she wove her robe of blue thread in front of a rosemary bush. And to keep her inconspicuous, the bush's white flowers were dyed blue. The two stamens have only one stalk each, which protrudes from the pair, while the stalk has a receding tooth.
The upper seed coat has developed from two bracts, but early in flowering the fourfold division is apparent, the mature fruit splitting into four acorns. The pistil is deeply sunken between the acorns. The fruit lacks a seed coat. The flowering period is long, more than two months (May-July), but the seeds are few and germinate. Seed germination is less than 10%, very rarely reaching 30-40%, but even this is only retained for 1-2 years. The kernel weight per thousand is less than 1 g. Poor germination and seed yield is due to poor pollination because the stamens have atrophied or the stamens mature well before the pistils.
It does not occur in the wild in our area because it does not tolerate winter cold. It is heat-hungry. It should be cultivated where the average annual temperature is above 10-15 °C and winter frosts are less than -10 °C.
Although moderately light-hungry, it likes hot sun. It not only grows dynamically in abundant sunlight, but also develops its volatile and aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, it grows well in partial shade, in windows and on verandas.
From its name and origin, one would expect it to prefer only places with high rainfall, but this is not true, as it tolerates drought very well. It can survive for weeks without rainfall (200-300 mm of annual rainfall is sufficient).
Not very fussy about soil, but prefers alkaline, slightly chalky soil. It also grows well on thin, stony hillsides. There it often overwinters without cover, because the cold air trickles down into the valley. It can also be grown on sand in humusy soils that warm quickly. It will only thrive in highly acidic (pH 4) forest soils. In poor soil conditions it can be grown in large pots, containers or containers.
Can remain in a protected place for 4-5 years (overwintering), before planting, top up the soil with organic fertiliser and fertilisers. Precise nutrient replenishment values can be given when soil test results are available. As an indication, calculate 0,1-0,2 kg of pure active ingredient of mixed fertiliserper 10m2(nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ratio 1:1:4).
When planting, bear in mind that it is a perennial and therefore requires thorough soil preparation. It does not require any pre-soil, it can be any plant, but it should leave a weed-free, smooth soil. After deep ploughing in the autumn and tilling with organic manure in the spring, keep the soil weed-free until planting in May. In particular, pay more attention to the eradication of perennial weeds (sulphur weeds, asparagus, etc.).
There are several propagation options. Seed sowing and planting is difficult and involves a lot of trouble. It is much easier to obtain propagating material by grafting or cuttings from semi-woody stems.
The 10-15 cm shoot ends with 3-4 buds, harvested in summer, root very easily in open ground. It is quicker if the last bud is left 2-3 cm from the cut at the lower end of the cuttings, while when cutting, only the top shoots, which are the result of 1-2 buds, are allowed to grow and the rest are broken off.
They require temperatures of around 20 °C and constant soil moisture for rooting. Do not forget to cover them in winter, as young plants are more sensitive to frost. After a year, the well-rooted cuttings can be transplanted to their final location.
It is easy to root, and nothing is better proof of this than the spontaneous root development of branches in contact with the soil. Such shoots can also be planted by separating them from the parent plant. This tendency can be exploited by rooting by filling in. For this, prepare the plants the previous year by pruning them back two or three times to get plenty of branching. In the spring, fill in the stems so that only 8-10 cm of the roots remain above the ground. Compact loose, composted, peaty soil for the plant and keep it moist throughout. Covered areas will have many roots by August. Break up the topsoil and cut off the rooted branches, then plant them in their permanent place.
If you want to create a larger continuous area, space the stems 50-60 cm apart. For mechanical cultivation, the row spacing can be increased to 1-1,5 m.
In the first two years, in particular, weed the area. During this period, manual, mechanical weeding methods are recommended. There is almost no other work to be done, as it has no known pathogens or pests and therefore does not require any plant protection. Perennial, ageing plantations may be subject to hose fungus infestation or bollworm infestation.
Young plants, one or two years old, should be cut back after thinning or after planting to obtain a richly branched bush. Pruning can be repeated during the summer. Towards the end of autumn, the stems should be covered or picked up and moved to a frost-free place. Once picked up and wrapped, they can be overwintered in a light, low-temperature room with moderate watering. The rosemary will also produce new shoots in winter; it will decorate your home and freshen the air with a pleasant fragrance.
Cut once in the year of planting and twice in subsequent years. The first cut should be made at the beginning of flowering and the second in September. When harvesting, take care not to cut off any parts that have become overgrown. A yield of 6-8 kg of leavesper 10m2 is expected.
Perennial bushes are prone to defoliation, which can be accelerated by drought and lack of light. Cut back the heavily defoliated branches and water to encourage new young shoots to grow.
Remove leaves from shoots picked at flowering and dry them in a thin layer in a shady place. Store the dried product, as with other aromatic herbs, in a tightly closed container to reduce the loss of essential oil.
As a spice
Its appetising and digestive properties are exploited in the preparation of food by sprinkling rosemary leaves on poultry, lamb and game before cooking. A similar effect can be obtained by adding a sprig of rosemary to the cooking juices of potatoes, peas, asparagus and Swiss chard. It is also increasingly used in the flekken and grilling dishes that are so popular today.
As a medicinal herb
In folk medicine it is also used as an antispasmodic, and in some places it is used to flavour wine. Even the poorest families in the lowland farms had at least one pot of rosemary, a few leaves of which were sprinkled on top of the wheat straw to make the house smell pleasant.
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